
Craig M. Savage
Professor of Physics
ANU

















Publications 19942003
mainly cold atoms
ResearcherID 
Publications after 2003 
Publications before 1994
Dirac monopoles and dipoles in ferromagnetic spinor BoseEinstein condensates,
C. M. Savage and J. Ruostekoski, Phys. Rev. A 68, 043604 (2003).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We investigate a radial spin hedgehog, analogous to the Dirac monopole,
in an optically trapped atomic spin1 BoseEinstein condensate.
Full abstract.
We investigate a radial spin hedgehog, analogous to the Dirac monopole,
in an optically trapped atomic spin1 BoseEinstein condensate.
By joining together a monopoleantimonopole pair, we may form a vortex line with free ends.
We numerically simulate the threedimensional dynamics and imaginary time
relaxation of these structures to nonsingular textures and show they can be
observable for realistic experimental parameters.
Energetically stable particlelike Skyrmions in a trapped BoseEinstein condensate,
C. M. Savage and J. Ruostekoski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 010403 (2003).
ArXiv  Physical Review Letters 
Google Scholar
We numerically show that a topologically nontrivial 3D Skyrmion
can be energetically stable in a trapped twocomponent atomic BoseEinstein condensate,
for the parameters of Rb87 condensate experiments.
Full abstract.
We numerically show that a topologically nontrivial 3D Skyrmion
can be energetically stable in a trapped twocomponent atomic BoseEinstein condensate,
for the parameters of Rb87 condensate experiments. The separate conservation of the
two atomic species can stabilize the Skyrmion against shrinking to zero size,
while drift of the Skyrmion due to the trapinduced density gradient can be
prevented by rotation or by a laser potential.
BoseEinstein condensate collapse: a comparison between theory and experiment,
C. M. Savage, N.P. Robins, and J.J. Hope, Phys. Rev. A 67, 014304 (2003).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We solve the GrossPitaevskii equation numerically for
the collapse induced by a switch from positive to negative scattering lengths.
Full abstract.
We solve the GrossPitaevskii equation numerically for
the collapse induced by a switch from positive to negative scattering lengths.
We compare our results with experiments performed at JILA with
BoseEinstein condensates of Rb85, in which the scattering length was controlled using a
Feshbach resonance. Building on previous theoretical work we identify quantitative
differences between the predictions of meanfield theory and the results of the experiments.
Besides the previously reported difference between the predicted and observed critical
atom number for collapse, we also find that the predicted collapse times systematically
exceed those observed experimentally. Quantum field effects, such as fragmentation,
that might account for these discrepancies are discussed.
BoseEinstein condensates in optical lattices: Bandgap structure and solitons,
P. J. Y. Louis, E. A. Ostrovskaya, C. M. Savage, and Yu. S. Kivshar, Phys. Rev. A 67, 013602 (2003).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We analyze the existence and stability of spatially extended
(Blochtype) and localized states of a BoseEinstein condensate loaded into an optical lattice.
Full abstract.
We analyze the existence and stability of spatially extended
(Blochtype) and localized states of a BoseEinstein condensate loaded into an optical lattice.
In the framework of the GrossPitaevskii equation with a periodic potential,
we study the bandgap structure of the matterwave spectrum in both the linear and nonlinear regimes.
We demonstrate the existence of families of spatially localized matterwave gap solitons,
and analyze their stability in different band gaps, for both repulsive and attractive atomic interactions.
Stability of continuously pumped atom lasers,
S. A. Haine, J. J. Hope, N. P. Robins, C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 170403 (2002).
ArXiv  Physical Review Letters 
Google Scholar
A multimode model of a continuously pumped atom laser is shown to be
unstable below a critical value of the scattering length.
Full abstract.
A multimode model of a continuously pumped atom laser is shown to be
unstable below a critical value of the scattering length.
Above the critical scattering length, the atom laser reaches a steady state,
the stability of which increases with pumping. Below this limit the laser does not reach a steady state.
This instability results from the competition between gain and loss for the excited states of the lasing mode.
It will determine a fundamental limit for the linewidth of an atom laser beam.
Macroscopic quantum superposition states in BoseEinstein condensates: Decoherence and many modes,
P. J. Y. Louis, P. M. R. Brydon, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 64, 053613 (2001).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We investigate the feasibility of a particular scheme for generating macroscopic quantum superposition states in twospecies dilute gas BoseEinstein condensates.
Full abstract.
We investigate the feasibility of a particular scheme for generating macroscopic quantum superposition states in twospecies dilute gas BoseEinstein condensates. The scheme utilizes twobody interactions and Josephson coupling between the species. We report numerical studies that extend a previous twomode model to include dissipation and extra modes.
Atom laser dynamics,
Nicholas Robins, Craig Savage, and Elena A. Ostrovskaya, Phys. Rev. A 64, 043605 (2001).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
An ideal atom laser would produce an atomic beam with highly stable flux and energy.
Full abstract.
An ideal atom laser would produce an atomic beam with highly stable flux and energy. In practice, the stability is likely to be limited by technical noise and nonlinear dynamical effects. We investigate the dynamics of an atom laser using a comprehensive onedimensional, meanfield numerical model. We fully model the output beam and experimentally important physics such as threebody recombination. We find that at highpump rates, the latter plays a role in suppressing the highfrequency dynamics, which would otherwise limit the stability of the output beam.
The theory of atom lasers
R. Ballagh and C. M. Savage, in "Proceedings of the Thirteenth Physics Summer School", reference below.
ArXiv  Local PDF (500 kB) 
Google Scholar
We review the current theory of atom lasers.
Full abstract.
We review the current theory of atom lasers. A tutorial treatment of second quantisation and the GrossPitaevskii equation is presented, and basic concepts of coherence are outlined. The generic types of atom laser models are surveyed and illustrated by specific examples. We conclude with detailed treatments of the mechanisms of gain and output coupling.
Proceedings of the Thirteenth Physics Summer School: BoseEinstein Condensation: Atomic Physics to Quantum Fluids, eds. C.M. Savage and M.P. Das (World Scientific, Singapore, 2000).
Amazon listing
The linewidth of a nonMarkovian atom laser
J. J. Hope, G. M. Moy, M. J. Collett, C. M. Savage, Optics Commun. 179, 571 (2000).
Local PDF (80 kB) 
Optics Communications 
Google Scholar
We present a fully quantum mechanical treatment of a singlemode atom laser including pumping and output coupling.
Full abstract.
We present a fully quantum mechanical treatment of a singlemode atom laser including pumping and output coupling. By ignoring atomatom interactions, we have solved this model without making the BornMarkov approximation. We find substantially less gain narrowing than is predicted under that approximation.
A model of a pumped continuous atom laser,
N. Robins, C. Savage, E. Ostrovskaya, in "Directions in Quantum Optics : A Collection of Papers Dedicated to the Memory of Dan Walls", eds. H. Carmichael, R. Glauber, M. Scully (Springer, 2000).
ArXiv  Local PDF (460 kB) 
Google Scholar
We present a model of a cw atom laser based on a system of coupled GP equations. The model incorporates continuous Raman outcoupling, pumping and threebody recombination. The outcoupled field has minimal atomic density fluctuations and is locally monochromatic.
Steadystate quantum statistics of a nonMarkovian atom laser,
J. J. Hope, G. M. Moy, M. J. Collett, and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 61, 023603 (2000).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We present a fully quantummechanical treatment of a singlemode atomic cavity with a pumping mechanism and an output coupling to a continuum of external modes.
Full abstract.
We present a fully quantummechanical treatment of a singlemode atomic cavity with a pumping mechanism and an output coupling to a continuum of external modes. This system is a schematic description of an atom laser. In the dilute limit where atomatom interactions are negligible, we have been able to solve this model without making the Born and Markov approximations. When coupling into free space, it is shown that for reasonable parameters there is a bound state which does not disperse, which means that there is no steady state. This bound state does not exist when gravity is included, and in that case the system reaches a steady state. We develop equations of motion for the twotime correlation in the presence of pumping and gravity in the output modes. We then calculate the energy spectrum of the steadystate output flux from the laser. We present a selfconsistent Markov approximation which allows efficient calculation of this energy spectrum well above threshold.
Visualising special relativity,
C. M. Savage and A. C. Searle, The Physicist 36, 141 (1999).
PDF version (522 kB) 
Google Scholar
We describe a graphics package we have developed for producing photorealistic images of relativisticaly moving objects. The physics of relativistic images is outlined.
Creating macroscopic quantum superpositions with BoseEinstein condensates,
D. Gordon and C. M. Savage , Phys. Rev. A 59, 4623 (1999).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We use a simple twomode model to investigate the quantum state dynamics of a twospecies BoseEinsten condensate, such as that produced in recent experiments, undergoing weak Josephson coupling.
Full abstract.
We use a simple twomode model to investigate the quantum state dynamics of a twospecies BoseEinsten condensate, such as that produced in recent experiments, undergoing weak Josephson coupling. We find that in certain parameter regimes the quantum state of the system evolves into a macroscopic superposition of two states which differ in the atom number difference between the two species. The size of the macroscopic superposition created by such a method can be varied by adjusting the Josephson coupling coefficient, and is found to be near maximal for a certain critical value of this coefficient.
Probing a doubly driven twolevel atom,
Andrew D Greentree, Changjiang Wei, Scott A Holmstrom, John P D Martin, Neil B Manson, Kylie R Catchpole and Craig Savage, Journal of Optics B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 1, 240 (1999).
Journal of Optics B 
Google Scholar
A twolevel system is driven by two strong fields, one on resonance and one close to resonance.
Full abstract.
A twolevel system is driven by two strong fields, one on resonance and one close to resonance. There is a resonancelike response of the coupled atomfield system when the detuning of the second field is an integer fraction of the Rabi frequency of the resonant field. These subharmonic resonances are monitored by a transition to a third level and give a characteristic spectrum dominated by a series of doublets.
Born and Markov approximations for atom lasers,
G.M. Moy, J.J. Hope, C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 59, 667 (1999).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We discuss the use of the Born and Markov approximations in describing the dynamics of an atom laser.
Full abstract.
We discuss the use of the Born and Markov approximations in describing the dynamics of an atom laser. In particular, we investigate the applicability of the quantum optical BornMarkov master equation for describing output coupling. We derive conditions based on the atomic reservoir and atom dispersion relations for when the BornMarkov approximations are valid and discuss parameter regimes where these approximations fail in our atom laser model. Differences between the standard optical laser model and the atom laser are due to a combination of factors, including the parameter regimes in which a typical atom laser would operate, the different reservoir state that is appropriate for atoms, and the different dispersion relations between atoms and photons. We present results based on an exact method in the regimes in which the BornMarkov approximation fails. The exact solutions in some experimentally relevant parameter regimes give a nonexponential loss of atoms from a cavity.
Excitation spectrum and instability of a twospecies BoseEinstein condensate,
D. Gordon, C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 58, 1440 (1998).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We numerically calculate the zerotemperature density profile and excitation spectrum of a twospecies BoseEinstein condensate for the parameters of recent experiments.
Full abstract.
We numerically calculate the zerotemperature density profile and excitation spectrum of a twospecies BoseEinstein condensate for the parameters of recent experiments. We find that the groundstate density profile of this system becomes unstable in certain parameter regimes, which leads to a phase transition to a new stable state. This state displays spontaneously broken cylindrical symmetry. This behavior is reflected in the excitation spectrum: As we approach the phase transition point, the lowest excitation frequency goes to zero, indicating the onset of instability in the density profile. Following the phase transition, this frequency rises again.
Pumping two dilute gas BoseEinstein condensates with Raman light scattering,
C. M. Savage, Janne Ruostekoski, Dan F. Walls, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3805 (1998).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We propose an optical method for increasing the number of atoms in a pair of dilutegas BoseEinstein condensates.
Full abstract.
We propose an optical method for increasing the number of atoms in a pair of dilutegas BoseEinstein condensates. The method uses laserdriven Raman transitions which scatter atoms between the condensate and noncondensate atom fractions. For a range of condensate phase differences there is destructive quantum interference of the amplitudes for scattering atoms out of the condensates. Because the total atom scattering rate into the condensates is unaffected, the condensates grow.
Output coupling for an atom laser by state change,
G. Moy and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 56, 1087 (1997).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We calculate the spectrum of a beam of atoms output from a singlemode atomic cavity.
Full abstract.
We calculate the spectrum of a beam of atoms output from a singlemode atomic cavity. The output coupling uses an internalstate change to an untrapped state. We present an analytical solution for the output energy spectrum from a broadband coupler of this type. An example of such an output coupler, which we discuss in detail, uses a Raman transition to produce a nontrapped state.
Spontaneous photon emission stimulated by two BoseEinstein condensates,
C. M. Savage, Janne Ruostekoski, Dan F. Walls, Phys. Rev. A 56, 2046 (1997).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We show that the phase difference of two overlapping groundstate BoseEinstein condensates can affect the optical spontaneous emission rate of excited atoms.
Full abstract.
We show that the phase difference of two overlapping groundstate BoseEinstein condensates can affect the optical spontaneous emission rate of excited atoms. Depending on the phase difference the atomstimulated spontaneous emission rate can vary between zero and the rate corresponding to all the groundstate atoms in a single condensate. Besides giving control over spontaneous emission this provides an optical method for detecting the condensate phase difference. It differs from previous methods in that no light fields are applied. Instead the light is spontaneously emitted when excited atoms make a transition into either condensate.
Atom laser based on Raman transitions,
G. Moy, J. Hope, and C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 55, 3631 (1997).
ArXiv  Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
In this paper we present an atom laser scheme using a Raman transition for the output coupling of atoms.
Full abstract.
In this paper we present an atom laser scheme using a Raman transition for the output coupling of atoms. A beam of thermal atoms (bosons) in a metastable atomic state is pumped into a multimode atomic cavity. This cavity is coupled through spontaneous emission to another cavity for the atomic ground state. Above a certain threshold pumping rate a large number of atoms build up in the lowest energy state of the second cavity, while the higher energy states remain unpopulated. Atoms are then coupled to the outside of the cavity with a Raman transition. This changes the internal level of the atom and imparts a momentum kick, allowing the atoms to leave the system. We propose an implementation of our scheme using hollow opticalfiber atom waveguides.
Stimulation of beta decay due to a BoseEinstein condensate,
J. Hope and C.M. Savage, Phys. Lett. A 222, 87 (1996).
ArXiv 
Physics Letters A 
Google Scholar
Nuclear processes can be stimulated by the presence of a macroscopic number of bosons in one of the final states.
Full abstract.
Nuclear processes can be stimulated by the presence of a macroscopic number of bosons in one of the final states. We describe the conditions necessary to observe the atomstimulation of a beta decay process. The stimulation may be observable if it becomes possible to produce a BoseEinstein condensate with the order of 10^{14} atoms in a trap.
Stimulated enhancement of crosssection by a BoseEinstein condensate,
J. Hope and C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 54, 3177 (1996).
ArXiv 
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
This paper examines the feasibility of constructing an experiment that detects the atomic stimulation of a photonemission process.
Full abstract.
This paper examines the feasibility of constructing an experiment that detects the atomic stimulation of a photonemission process. A beam of atoms (bosons) in an excited state is passed through an atomic trap that traps the atoms when they are in their internal ground state. When the trap contains a BoseEinstein condensate, the cross section for absorption of the atomic beam is increased. We examine a particular model in which this atom stimulation is observable and is also characterized by the emission of photons in a narrow cone in the direction of the atomic beam.
Mechanical potentials due to Raman transitions,
J. J. Hope and C. M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1697 (1996).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We investigate the mechanical potential of an atom due to a Raman transition. This is a generalization of the usual twolevel dipole potential.
Full abstract.
We investigate the mechanical potential of an atom due to a Raman transition. This is a generalization of the usual twolevel dipole potential. With sufficiently large one and twophoton detunings the forms of the potential and excitation probability are the same as for the twolevel case, but with a scaled detuning. This allows greater effective blue detunings to be accessible with the Raman scheme. This means that with the same available laser power, atoms can move coherently in the light field for many orders of magnitude longer without spontaneously emitting. Furthermore the sign of the potential may be controlled independently of the onephoton detuning.
Evanescent wave diffraction of multilevel atoms,
D. Gordon and C. Savage, Opt. Commun. 130, 34 (1996);
Erratum, Opt. Commun. 136, 503 (1997).
ArXiv 
Optics Communications 
Erratum 
Google Scholar
Diffraction of multilevel atoms by an evanescent wave reflective diffraction grating is modeled by numerically solving the timedependent Schrödinger equation.
Full abstract.
Diffraction of multilevel atoms by an evanescent wave reflective diffraction grating is modeled by numerically solving the timedependent Schrödinger equation. We are able to explain the diffraction observed in experiments with metastable neon. This is not possible using a twolevel atom model. The multilevel model predicts sensitive dependence of diffraction on the laser polarization. For pure ppolarization of the lasers a dark state forms. Associated with this is high order diffraction.
Band gaps for atoms in light based waveguides,
J. Hope and C. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3449 (1996).
Erratum, Phys. Rev. A 54, 5458 (1996).
ArXiv 
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
The energy spectrum for a system of atoms in a periodic potential can exhibit a gap in the band structure.
Full abstract.
The energy spectrum for a system of atoms in a periodic potential can exhibit a gap in the band structure. We describe a system in which a laser is used to produce a mechanical potential for the atoms, and a standingwave light field is used to shift the atomic levels using the AutlerTownes effect, which produces a periodic potential. The band structure for atoms guided by a hollow optical fiber waveguide is calculated in three dimensions with quantized external motion. The size of the band gap is controlled by the light guided by the fiber. This variable band structure may allow the construction of devices that can cool atoms. The major limitation on this device would be the spontaneous emission losses.
Introduction to light forces, atom cooling, and atom trapping,
C. Savage, Aust. J. Phys. 49, 745 (1996).
ArXiv 
Google Scholar
This paper introduces and reviews light forces, atom cooling and atom trapping.
Full abstract.
This paper introduces and reviews light forces, atom cooling and atom trapping. The emphasis is on the physics of the basic processes. In discussing conservative forces the semiclassical dressed states are used rather than the usual quantized field dressed states.
Numerical modeling of evanescent wave atom optics,
C. Savage, D. Gordon, and T. Ralph, Phys. Rev. A 52, 4741 (1995).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We numerically solve the timedependent Schrödinger equation for a twolevel atom interacting with an evanescent light field.
Full abstract.
We numerically solve the timedependent Schrödinger equation for a twolevel atom interacting with an evanescent light field. The atom may be reflected or diffracted. Using the experimental parameter values we quantitatively model the evanescent field dopplerons (velocitytuned resonances) observed by Stenlake et al. [Phys. Rev. A 49, 16 (1994)]. Besides successfully modeling the experiment, our approach provides complementary insights to the usual solution of the timeindependent Schrödinger equation. We neglect spontaneous emission.
Atomic gravitational cavities from hollow optical fibers,
D. Harris and C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 51, 3967 (1995).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We analyze a type of cavity, or trap, for atoms: a hollow optical fiber bent into a vertical U shape.
Full abstract.
We analyze a type of cavity, or trap, for atoms: a hollow optical fiber bent into a vertical U shape. The atoms are confined by gravity and by light forces due to the evanescent wave on the fibers interior surface. A unique feature of this cavity is its mechanical flexibility, which allows tailoring of the gravitational potential experienced by the atoms. In particular a cycloid shape gives simple harmonic motion along the fiber. It can achieve confinement times similar to the parabolic reflector type of gravitational cavity. Quantized motion and an intracavity cooling scheme are considered.
Quantum trajectories and classical attractors in second harmonic generation,
Xiping Zheng and C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 51, 792 (1995).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We numerically investigate the classical limit of quantum trajectories in optical secondharmonic generation.
Full abstract.
We numerically investigate the classical limit of quantum trajectories in optical secondharmonic generation. This is a dissipative system of two nonlinearly coupled harmonic oscillators, corresponding to the fundamental and secondharmonic optical cavity modes. Classically it is described by a system of nonlinear differential equations which have a range of attractors: fixed points, limit cycles, and chaotic attractors. We consider the fieldamplitude mean values corresponding to the quantum trajectory wave functions. We find that in the classical limit of large photon number the trajectories of these mean values approach the corresponding classical attractors. This is because the mean values of operator products factorize into products of mean values in the classical limit.
Bound states of twodimensional nonuniform waveguides,
M. Andrews and C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 50, 4535 (1994).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We consider the theoretical problem of finding the bound eigenstates of an infinite nonuniform twodimensional waveguide with Dirichlet boundary conditions.
Full abstract.
We consider the theoretical problem of finding the bound eigenstates of an infinite nonuniform twodimensional waveguide with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Using a coordinate transformation we show that this is equivalent to finding the eigenstates of a uniform waveguide with a potential proportional to the eigenvalue. Hence there is a sense in which the bound states occurring in nonuniform waveguides are analogous to bound states due to potentials in uniform waveguides.
Coherent atomic waveguides from hollow optical fibers: quantized atomic motion,
S. Marksteiner, C.M. Savage, P. Zoller, S. Rolston, Phys. Rev. A 50, 2680 (1994).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We present a theoretical analysis of coherent atomic motion through a straight atomic waveguide constructed from a hollow optical fiber.
Full abstract.
We present a theoretical analysis of coherent atomic motion through a straight atomic waveguide constructed from a hollow optical fiber. Atoms are guided by the evanescent light field at the fibers interior glassvacuum interface. The atoms internal structure is modeled by a J_{g}=0 to J_{e}=1 transition. The atomic wave functions are determined and the loss rates due to spontaneous emission, tunneling to the wall, and nonadiabatic transitions are estimated. The influence of CasimirPolder forces is considered. We conclude with a discussion of the feasibility of the proposed waveguides.
Complete atomic population inversion using correlated sidebands,
Ping Koy Lam and C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A, 50, 3500 (1994).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We consider a twolevel atom driven by modulated light and find that complete population inversion can be induced by light without any resonant frequency component.
Full abstract.
We consider a twolevel atom driven by modulated light and find that complete population inversion can be induced by light without any resonant frequency component. This is in contrast to the familiar case of monochromatic driving in which complete population inversion is only possible with resonant light. Our results concern experimentally realizable systems, and hence the effect of spontaneous emission is considered. We relate our results to recent work on double quantum wells and hence extend the parameter regime for lowfrequency radiation generation
Phasesensitive abovethreshold laser amplifiers,
Yi Mu and C.M. Savage, Phys. Rev. A 49, 4093 (1994).
Physical Review A 
Google Scholar
We present a quantummechanical analysis of an abovethreshold laser amplifier made phase sensitive by an injected field.
Full abstract.
We present a quantummechanical analysis of an abovethreshold laser amplifier made phase sensitive by an injected field. The gain and noise are calculated in a highQ cavity with fourlevel atoms as the lasing medium. We find that for coherentstate inputs this amplifier can preserve the signaltonoise ratio thus achieving the theoretical best noise performance.
Tolerance of dual recycling laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors to mirror tilt and curvature errors,
D. McClelland, C.M. Savage, A. Tridgell, R. Mavaddat, Phys. Rev. D 48, 5475 (1994).
Physical Review D 
Google Scholar
Various configurations of dual recycling laser interferometers are tested, numerically, for their tolerance to wavefront distortions induced by mirror tilts and curvature mismatch.
Full abstract.
Various configurations of dual recycling laser interferometers are tested, numerically, for their tolerance to wavefront distortions induced by mirror tilts and curvature mismatch. We verify that, in the presence of such geometric imperfections, dual recycling designs experience significantly less power loss than straight power recycling devices. Importantly, we show that the power loss reduction from the detection port is accompanied by maintenance of circulating power in the instrument and hence maintenance of signal response. We confirm predictions that when a cavity is placed at the output port of the interferometer, tolerance to geometric imperfections is further improved by typically an order of magnitude.
Publications before 1994 
Publications after 2003
Top of the Page
