A very short unofficial history of the Monash University Observatory at Mt Burnett, Victoria.

Written by John Innis

Contents:

Overview:

The Monash Observatory at Mt Burnett (approx 40 km east of Melbourne) was established in the early 1970's by Monash University. Originally overseen by the Science Faculty, it soon became a field station of the Physics Department, and has been operated and maintained by Departmental staff (academic and technical) and research students. Multicolour photoelectric photometry of selected southern variable stars has been carried out since the mid-1970's, using single channel instruments. The observatory is a small installation, both in terms of instrumentation and staff numbers. However, a variety of work has been undertaken. In the specific area of long term photometric studies of a small number of stars the work of the Observatory has been well received both nationally and internationally. The Observatory has also been used in the astronomy teaching programs of the Physics Department.

The first building on the site was a two storey 'dome', housing a 16" (0.4 m) diameter Newtonian reflector, purchased from the estate of Mr L. Jeffree of Bendigo (in NW Victoria) by the University in the late 1960's. The telescope was transferred to Mt Burnett in 1972 following initial commissioning and operation on the University campus. In 1975 a pre-fabricated log cabin was installed on the site, providing observers quarters and a display area. In the late 1970's a second telescope was purchased. This was a 10" (0.25 m) Newtonian, and was installed soon afterwards, in the early 1980's, in a 'roll-off-roof' shed, affectionately known as the 'chookhouse'.

In 1985 the 16" telescope was replaced by a 0.45 m Cassegrain/Newtonian of more modern design. This telescope remains the main observatory instrument today. In 1996 a small, modern computer-controlled cassegrain telescope and CCD were purchased with an ARC grant. It is planned that this will replace the 10" Newtonian at Mt Burnett.

Research Work:

Initial work with the 16" telescope involved the construction of a low dispersion spectrometer and broad band photometer for studies of bright stars. The spectra were recorded on glass plates (these were the years well before CCD's!). Some reasonable spectra of several bright southern stars were obtained - including the legendary 'Canopus' spectrum that is still spoken of reverently by older staff! However, the limited light grasp of the telescope, the low quantum efficiency of photographic emulsions, and optical alignment instabilities in the wooden-tubed spectrograph ('the coffin'), meant that no results of real astrophysical interest were obtained, although much useful experience was gained. The photometer was moderately successful, but problems with the refrigeration unit used to cool the photomultiplier tube meant that reliable operation was not possible.

By the mid 1970's a new photometer was in operation. This dispensed with the cumbersome refrigeration system of the first photometer by operating with an uncooled 1P21 photomultiplier tube. (The 'KISS' principle!) Johnson UBV filters allowed three colour photometry to be obtained with an accuracy of around 0.01 magnitude on stars down to 9th magnitude. This gave many targets for stellar research in the (then) relatively little studied southern skies.

As the research group was small in number, and the telescopes(s) were available solely for their use, a research ethos soon established itself where dedicated long-term studies of a relatively small number of objects were undertaken. This compensated somewhat for the relatively cloudy conditions and low altitude of the site. (In an average year, about 50 to 60 nights are suitable for single-channel photoelectric photometry at Mt Burnett, which, while small in percentage terms, is more telescope time than many other astronomers get!) One of the first targets studied was the rapidly pulsating star SX Phe - one of a small number of stars showing a relatively large (approximately 0.7 magnitude in V) amplitude with a short period (about 80 minutes). The star is actually pulsating in both the fundamental (the 80 minute period) and first overtone, producing a strong 'beat' in the light curve. Intensive monitoring over many years allowed the periods to be measured accurately, and also period changes to be detected. Such period changes indicate evolutionary changes deep within the star, and are important data for understanding how the structure of stars change with age.

Other pulsating stars studied were of the delta-Scuti class - several new members of this class were identified in the far southern sky. Pulsation periods were refined for others, using both previous measurements by earlier workers and data gathered at Mt Burnett. A compilation of data on such short period pulsating stars from the literature was produced in the early 1980's by two of the observatory's research students. This has proved to be a very useful summary for workers in the field - the paper has one of the highest citation indices of papers produced in the Physics Department. Later work on pulsating stars has included the star CY Aquarii, observed as part of an international, multi-telescope campaign, in a search for multiperiodicity. The published frequency-analysis of these multi-site data was carried out largely by an observatory staff member.

Also in the early 1980's the Observatory work moved more into the field of active- chromosphere stars - i.e. those cool stars that show enhanced solar-like activity (starspots, etc.). The Observatory identified a number of stars of this class in the southern sky, and proceeded to follow in detail the changing pattern of light variations of these stars as their starspots grew and decayed over several months or years. Work done at the observatory established that some of these stars were relatively young, comparable in age to the stars in the Pleiades cluster. Also at about this time, as the research programs developed, spectroscopic observations were made with the facilities of Mount and Siding Spring Observatories, and the Anglo-Australian Observatory, and collaborative programs were undertaken with radioastronomers from the then CSIRO Division of Radiophysics in Sydney. Later programs in recent years helped in the optical identification of cool stars detected as X-ray sources by the ROSAT satellite, involving collaboration with astronomers from the UK.

The people:

Only a few people are mentioned in detail here. A complete list of the Observatory staff and students can be found elsewhere - I hope. Apologies to anyone offended by this selection. This section is subject to revision/expansion/correction!

The observatory's longest serving staff member is undoubtedly Dr Denis Coates. Denis joined the Physics Department at Monash in 1961, only a few months after the establishment of the University. A cosmic ray physicist (from the Uni of Nottingham, UK) with a long interest in astronomy, Denis was the staff member assigned to the telescope project when the 16" was first purchased by the University, and he remains associated with the Observatory through to the present day. Denis is currently an honorary research fellow in the Physics Department following his retirement (as Senior Lecturer) at the end of 1995.

Initial commissioning of the telescope took place in the service yard of the physics department, following completion of the telescope and mount in the physics workshop, under Mr R. Horan. (The mechanical and electronic workshop staff continue to support the operation and development of the Observatory.) Mr R.L. Bryant, Departmental photographer and amateur astronomer, assisted with the commissioning at this time.

An early Honours year student in the Observatory's history is David Herald, who was involved in obtaining the first observations with the telescope in 1971, while it was located in the physics service yard. David went to the Patent Office in Canberra after his Honours year. However, he has had a long and distinguished career as an 'amateur' astronomer, and is known internationally in both amateur and professional circles for his cometary astrometry and other work - asteroid number 3696 is named after him in recognition of this work.

Also involved in the early days was John Robinson ('Robbo'), both as an honours student and as the Observatory's first research student, completing an M.Sc. in 1976(?). During this time an 'Observatory sub-committee' (Prof R. Street, Denis, Leo Gleeson (Mathematics Department) and Bob Bryant) selected the site for the Mt Burnett Observatory, after investigating a number of sites both north and south of the Great Dividing Range. The main argument in favour of the selection of Mt Burnett was the relatively easy access (less than one hour by car) from the Monash campus. Robbo's thesis 'Establishing and Equipping a Small Astronomical Observatory' tells (part of?) the story of the establishment of the Observatory, the early spectrometer and first photometer, and contains examples of the data obtained with these instruments.

The Honours year student in 1974 was a young Terry ('Tex') Moon, who will make a reappearance in this section later on.

In 1975 Denis took study leave, and returned to the UK, visiting a number of institutions, including the R.G.O., at that time at Herstmonceux Castle in Sussex. While he was away, Dr Don Hutton supervised John Robinson. Don has continued a 'loose association' with the Observatory and astronomy at Monash since that time.

In 1976, following Denis's study leave, a new photometer was built, noted above, which proved to be the main workhorse for the next decade. Also at this time the Observatory staff was doubled when Dr. Keith Thompson joined the group. Keith's direct research background was in low temperature physics, but he had a life-long interest in astronomy: while a student at Manchester University he was a member of the active University astronomical society, and knew the eminent astronomer Zdenek Kopal.

The combination of Keith's quick physical and mathematical insight coupled with Denis's thoughtful consideration of problems and attention to detail formed a 'marriage' of research skills and interests that has continued to the present day.

In 1977 Len Halprin completed his honours year, then in 1978 became the group's first Ph.D. student, contributing much valued main-frame programming skills and experience. Len completed his thesis on the stars SX Phe and HD 5303 (CF Tuc) in 1983, then joined DSTO Melbourne, where he is now a Senior Research Scientist.

In 1981 Terry Moon (no longer known as 'Tex'!) returned for a Ph.D., having completed an M.Sc. at the RAAF Academy (Point Cook, Univ Melbourne) and worked as a research assistant at Sydney Uni in the intervening years. Terry's energy, enthusiasm and incredible organisational skills saw him submit his PhD on pulsating stars in just under 3 years. Terry made valuable contributions to the Observatory equipment, such as the cooled photomultiplier housing used on field trips to Siding Spring Observatory and later on the 0.45 m telescope, and the commissioning of the 10" telescope for photometry. Terry took up a post-doc at University College London in 1984. (Denis Coates took study leave at UCL in 1986.) In 1986 Terry returned to Australia and joined DSTO Salisbury, where he is now a Principal Research Scientist and a head of group.

In 1982 John Innis came from the then Melbourne State College, and completed Honours. He stayed on for a PhD on active-chromosphere stars - mainly AB Dor and PZ Tel! He finished this in late 1986. In 1987 John went to the University of Birmingham, working for 5 years (on two postdocs) in stellar seismology. (Denis Coates had six months study leave in Birmingham in early 1991.) John moved to the Australian Antarctic Division in mid 1992, where he remains, albeit on fixed-term contracts. He wintered at Mawson station as the Upper Atmosphere Physicist in 1993, and will winter at Davis station in 1999.

Greg Anders came to Monash from La Trobe Uni in 1989 to commence a PhD, also in active-chromosphere stars. Greg applied spot modelling techniques to some long term data sets, and found evidence for a 'butterfly diagram' for one star. He also helped identify cool stars detected by ROSAT in collaboration with astronomers from the UK. Greg completed his thesis in 1993, then joined the CSIRO Division of Wool Technology for a three year post-doc. He is now the World Wide Web manager for a Victorian State Government Department in Melbourne.

Colin Porter commenced a part-time PhD in 1992(?), with the aim of constructing a low dispersion CCD spectrograph for the 0.45 m telescope. Unfortunately, financial constraints forced Colin to indefinitely defer completing this work after much of the spectrograph had been built.

Stephen Marsden completed his M.Sc. in 1996, after several years of part time study, performing a simulation of the expected performance of the CCD spectrograph that was being constructed by Colin Porter. He is currently with the CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Melbourne.

A large number of Honours year students have also passed through the portals of Mt Burnett. Many have gone on to complete Ph.D.s, either in astronomy or other areas of physics. Gillian Heintze (H1979) took some of the first observations of the star HD 5303 (CF Tuc), then went to the Materials Engineering Department at Monash and completed a Ph.D. in Welding technology. Following a posting in Japan, and time spent in polymer physics, she is now at CSIRO Wool Technology in Geelong. Gillian was the first of three students from the Mallee/Wimmera area of Victoria to join the group, the other two being Peter Sartori (H1980), who obtained the first data on the star later to be known as PZ Tel, and now prepares the upcoming generation of scientists at a country Victorian high school, and Greg Anders, mentioned above.

CSIRO Wool Technology also attracts ex-Mt Burnetters it seems, as not only is it where Gillian currently works, and where Greg had a 3-year postdoc, but also Kylie Waring (H1991) held a post there. Kylie is now completing a Ph.D. in laser physics at ANU.

Stefan Dieters (H1983) went to the Uni of Tasmania, completing his Ph.D. in X- ray/optical astronomy. He has since had astronomical posts in the Netherlands (ESA), Germany (Max Planck Institute) and now is in the US (NASA Huntsville).

Mark Winsall (H1984) went on to Mt Stromlo Observatory (ANU) for his Ph.D., finishing in 1991. After some post doc work in both Belgium and Denmark, he has settled in the UK, working for a computer security company.

Zlatko Jovanoski (H1986) moved in to the area of applied maths, and joined the staff at the Australian Defence Force Academy (Uni NSW), completed his Ph.D., and is now a lecturer there. Keith Bambery (H1990) is currently working on a Ph.D. in the polymer physics group in the Monash Physics Department.

A near complete(?) list of all Observatory staff and students:

An indication of subsequent study or work is given - may not be up to date. (Note: H = Honours, M.Sc. = Master's, PhD = PhD! H71 = Honours 1971, etc.)

The 25th anniversary reunion:

On 1997 April 19, some 25 years after the establishment of the Mt Burnett observatory, a reunion barbecue was held on the site. While many of those people who are now interstate or overseas were unable to attend, much interest was shown. On the day about 25 people turned up to enjoy the clean Mt Burnett air, the views from the site (such as remain after the 'new' house was built on the adjoining property SW of the dome!), the sights and sounds of the old place, and of course the chance to catch up with old colleagues and to meet new people. The weather co-operated, giving some afternoon sunshine for the outdoor barbecue. (Some digital images from scanned photos taken on the day are/may be available on the WWW.)

All of the observatory's Ph.D. students attended - including Terry Moon from Adelaide and John Innis from Hobart. The Observatory's first research student, John Robinson, also was there. Kylie Waring made the long trip down the Hume Highway from Canberra. Apologies came from David Herald (Canberra), Peter Sartori (rural Victoria), Gerald Gierer (Geelong - but on a training course in Adelaide), Zlatko Jovanoski (Canberra), John Bally (Hobart), plus Mark Winsall (UK) and Stefan Dieters (USA). The interest in the event seemed to show just how much the time spent working in the astronomy group and at Mt Burnett becomes 'imbedded' in one's psyche! Plans are already underway for the 50th anniversary to be held some time in 2022!

Many thanks to Keith and Jean Thompson and Denis Coates for organising this event, and especially to Jean for the salads and deserts.

Publications:

A complete(?) list of the publications of Observatory staff and students is given here. The list was largely compiled by Keith Thompson. This list includes refereed and non- refereed articles, conference proceedings, book chapters, and other reports. Thesis and honours reports are not included. [IBVS = 'Information Bulletin on Variable Stars', from Commission 27 of the IAU (not refereed).]

PUBLICATIONS FROM THE MONASH OBSERVATORY

1. Robinson, J.R. and Coates D.W., 1976. Accurate orientation of the polar axis of an equatorial telescope mounting. Am. J. Phys., 44, 289-90.

2. Coates, D.W., Dale, M., Halprin, L., Robinson, J.R., and Thompson, K., (1979). The periods of SX Phoenicis. Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 187, 83-89.

3. Coates, D.W., Halprin, L. and Thompson, K., (1979), Further Examination of the equations for the times of maximum light of SX Phoenicis, IBVS, No. 1649.

4. Coates, D.W., Halprin, L., Heintze, G.N. and Thompson, K., (1980). Further observations of SX Phoenicis, IBVS, No. 1756.

5. Coates, D.W., Halprin, L., Sartori, P. and Thompson, K., (1980), Optical Variability of the RS CVn Candidate HD 174429, IBVS, No. 1849.

6. Slee, O.B., Allen, W.H., Coates, D.W., Page, A.A., and Quinn, P.J., (1981), Microwave emission from dMe flare stars. Paper presented at IAU Second Asian- Pacific Regional Meeting in Astronomy, Bandung, Indonesia, 24-29 August 1981.

7. Coates, D.W., Halprin, L., Moon, T.T., and Thompson, K., (1981). New Observations of the Delta Scuti Variables Sigma Octantis and B. Octantis, IBVS, No. 2047.

8. Coates, D.W., Halprin, L., Moon, T.T. and Thompson, K. (1982). S. Eridani - a Delta Scuti variable, IBVS, No. 2093.

9. Moon, T.T. and Keay, D.M. (1982). Refinement of the fundamental frequency of pulsation of Delta Scuti, IBVS No. 2145.

10. Coates, D.W., Dieters, S., Innis, J.L., Moon, T.T. and Thompson, K. (1982). BP Octantis - a variable Am star, IBVS, No. 2233.

11. Coates, D.W., Halprin, L. and Thompson, K. (1982). The rates of change of the fundamental and overtone periods of SX Phe, Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 199, 135.

12. Thompson, K. (1982). The use of stellar reflection coefficients to model an RS CVn type photometric wave. Southern Stars, 30, 98-107.

13. Coates, D.W., Moon, T.T., Thompson, K. and Winsall, M.L. (1982). Refinement of the frequencies of pulsation of Delta Scuti, IBVS, No. 2238.

14. Coates, D.W., Innis, J.L., Moon, T.T. and Thompson, K. (1982). Identification of HD 174429 as an RS CVn system. IBVS, No. 2248.

15. Coates, D.W., Halprin, L., Sartori, P.A. and Thompson, K. (1983). Photoelectric photometry of HD 5303. Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc., 202, 427.

16. Coates, D.W., Innis, J.L. and Thompson, K. (1983). The light curve of HD 5303. IBVS, No. 2302.

17. Coates, D.W., Thompson, K., Innis, J.L. and Moon T.T. (1984). Chapter in 'Advances in Photelectric Photometry', Vol. 2, Wolpert, R.C. and Genet, R.M. (eds). Fairborn Observatory.

18. Halprin, L. and Moon, T.T. (1983). Revised List of Pulsating stars with ultra- short periods. Astrophys. Space Sci. 89 43.

19. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W., Moon, T.T. and Thompson, K. (1983). Preliminary 1983 photometry of HD 174429 (PZ Tel), IBVS No. 2378.

20. Moon, T.T., Coates, D.W., Halprin, L. and Thompson, K. (1983). HR 981 - a new USPC, IBVS No. 2383.

21. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W., Dieters, S.W.B., Moon, T.T. and Thompson, K. (1983). B and V photometry of the southern RS CVn candidate HD 196818. IBVS No. 2386.

22. Moon, T.T., Coates, D.W., Innis, J.L. and Thompson, K. (1983). Search for ultra short period variations in Epsilon Octantis. IBVS No. 2394.

23. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W. and Thompson, K. (1983). H-alpha variability in two southern RS CVn candidates. IBVS No. 2399.

24. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W., and Thompson, K. (1984). Radial velocity variations in the Ca II emission star HD 36705. IBVS No. 2571.

25. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W. and Thompson, K. (1984). The RS CVn type star PZ Tel. Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia, 5, 540-543.

26. Innis, J.L., Nelson, G.J., Coates, D.W. and Thompson, K. (1985). Further Radial Velocity Measurements on HD 36705. IBVS No. 2667.

27. Innis, J.L., Robinson, R.D., Coates, D.W. and Thompson, K. (1985). A Study of the Rapidly Rotating Late Type Star HD 36705 (AB Dor). Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia. 6, 156-160.

28. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W., Thompson, K., Nelson, G.J., Slee, O.B. and Wright, A.E. (1985). An optical and Radio Investigation of the Active RS CVn star HD 127535. Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia, 6, 160-164.

29. Innis, J.L., Thompson, K. and Coates, D.W. (1985). I.A.U. Symp. 18, Reidel, P. 293-294. The Monash Observatory: Equipment and Research.

30. Innis, J.L., Thompson, K. and Coates, D.W. (1986). On the Evolutionary Status of the Active Chromosphere Stars AB Doradus (HD 36705) and PZ Telescopium (HD 174429). Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 223, 183-188.

31. Slee, O.B., Nelson, G.J., Innis, J.L., Stewart, R.T., Vaughan, A.E. and Wright, A.E. (1986). The Active Radio Star HD 36705. Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia, 6, 312.

32. Robinson, R.D., Thompson, K. and Innis, J.L. (1986). The Variation of Lithium Equivalent width in Active Cool Stars. Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia, 6, 500- 503.

33. Thompson, K. (1987) . Photometric Observations on SZ Psc. I.B.V.S. No. 3119.

34. Slee, O.B., Nelson, G.J., Stewart, R.T., Wright, A.E., Innis, J.L., Ryan, S.G. and Vaughan, A.E. (1987). 'A Microwave Survey of Southern Active Stars'. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 229, 659-677.

35. Wright, A.E., Slee, O.B., Nelson, G.J., Stewart, R.T., Jauncey, D.L., White, G.L., Vaughan, A.E., Lim, J., Large, M.I., Bunton, J.D., Thompson, K., Coates, D.W., Innis, J.L., Peters, W.L., Ryan, S.G., Robinson, R.D., Cropper, M., Allen, D.A., and Page, A.A. (1987) The Australian Radio Star Survey. Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia, 7 159-162.

36. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W. and Thompson, K. (1988). Observations of Active Chromosphere Stars - I. Spectroscopic Study of AB Dor and PZ Tel. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 233, 887-898.

37. Innis, J.L., Thompson, K. and Coates, D.W. (1988). Observations of Active Chromosphere Stars - II. Photometry of AB Dor, 1978-1987. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 235, 1411-1422

38. Dopita, M.A., Dawe, J.A., Achilleos, N., Brissenden, R.J.V., Flynn, C., Meatheringham, S.J., Rawlings, S., Tuohy, I.R. McNaught, R.D., Coates, D.W., Hancy, S., Thompson, K and Shobbrook, R.R. (1988). 250 Days of SN 1987A: UBVRI Photometry at MSSSO. Astron J. 95, 1717-1723.

39. Thompson,K. (1988) "On a Cloudy Night". I.A.P.P.P. comm No 31,19-23

40. Thompson, K. and Thompson, I. (1989) `December 1988 Photometry on AB Doradus (HD 36705)'. I.B.V.S. No. 3320.

41. Stewart, R.T., Slee, O.B., Budding, E., Coates, D.W., Thompson, K. and Bunton, J.D. (1989) `Radio Emission from EA Eclipsing Binaries: Evidence for Kilogauss Surface Fields on Early and Late Type Stars'. Ap.J. 342, 463-466.

42. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W., Thompson, K., Lloyd Evans, T., 1990. 'Observations of active-chromosphere stars III -photometry of PZ Tel 1979-1985'. Mon. Not. R.astr.Soc 242,306.

43. Thompson, K., Coates D.W. and Anders, G. (1990) The Period Change Rate in the RS CVn Binary HD 5303. Proc. IAU. 5th Asian Pacific Regional Meeting. UNSW, Sydney, Australia. July 16-20 1990.

44. Thompson, K. and Coates D.W. (1990) The Rates of change of the Periods of SX Phe. Proc. IAU. 5th Asian Pacific Regional Meeting. UNSW, Sydney, Australia. July 16-20 1990.

45. Anders G.J., Innis J.L., Coates D.W. and Thompson K. (1991) Evidence that the active stars HD102077 (V838 Cen) and HD139084 (V343 Nor) are members of the local Association. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 252, 408-413.

46. Anders G.J., Coates D.W. and Thompson K. (1991) Studies of Active Chromosphere Stars at Monash University. Vistas in Astronomy ,Vol 34, 291-301.

47. Anders, G.J., Coates, D.W. and Thompson, K. (1992). Spot Modelling of AB Doradus 1980-1991. Proc. Astron. Soc. Australia, 10, 33-37.

48. Anders G.J., Innis J.L., Coates D.W., Thompson, K., 1992. 'Starspot lifetimes from long term photometry' in P.B. Byrne and D.J. Mullan (eds) Lecture Notes in Physics No.397, Springer-Verlag, Armagh, p.163-6.

49. Bromage G.E., Kellet B.J., Jeffries R.D., Innis J.L., Matthews L, Anders G.J. and Coates D.W. 'Speedy Mic:a young, nearby, extremely fast-rotating K star discovered by the ROSAT/WFCEUV survey' in M.S. Giampapa and J. Bookbinder (eds) Astronomical Society of the Pacific conference series Vol.26, Cambridge (Mass.) 80-92, 1992.

50. Anders G.J., Jeffries R.D., Kellett B.J. and Coates D.W. 1993 Speedy Mic a very young rapidly rotating K star. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 265, 941-945.

51. Coates,D.W., Fernley, J.A., Sekiguchi, K., Barnes, T.G. and Frueh, M.L., 1994. A Search for a Secondary Frequency in the Large Amplitude Delta Scuti Star CY Aquarii. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 266, 1-6

52. Jeffries R.D., Byrne P.B., Doyle, J.S., Anders, G.J., James, D.J. and Lanzafame, A.C., 1994. BD +22 4409 : a rapidly rotating low mass member of the Local Association. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 270, 153-172.

53. Anders G.J. (1994) "The December 1993 Light Curve of AB Dor" I.B.V.S. 3985.

54. Bedford D.K., Chaplin W.J., Coates D.W., Davies A.R., Innis J.L., Isaak G.R. and Speake, C.C., 1995. A Search for small-amplitude, acoustic, p-mode oscillations on alpha CMi. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 273, 367-375.

55. Thompson K. (1996). The Phase of Kappa Pavonis. Submitted to I.B.V.S.

56. Innis, J.L., Coates, D.W., and Thompson, K. (1997) Observations of Active- Chromosphere Stars - IV. Photometry and Spectroscopy of CF Octantis (HD 196818). Accepted by Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., in press.

57. Marsden, S.C., and Coates, D.W. (1997) "The Monash Spectrograph Simulation Program," accepted for publication, Astron. Soc. Aust.


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